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Cell types are the elementary building blocks of the mammalian brain, as they determine the properties of local circuits that can be built to serve area-specific brain functions. While there is a growing knowledge of cell type-specific cell anatomy (dendritic morphology and axonal arborization) and physiology (biophysical and synaptic properties and transcriptome profiles), there are virtually no data on quantitative brainwide cell-type distribution. Here we begin to address this knowledge gap by building a cell type-based atlas of the male and female mouse brain.